AUTHOR = {G. Grossi and M. Marchi and E. Pontelli and A. Provetti},
  TITLE = {Answer Set Computation over Parallel and Distributed Architectures},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06}

  AUTHOR = {T. Eiter and G. Ianni and R. Schindlauer and H. Tompits.},
  TITLE = {Integration of Multiple Semantics in an Answer Set Framework},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {F. Calimeri and G. Ianni},
  TITLE = {Extending ASP by Value Invention},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {W. Faber and N. Leone and F. Ricca and M. Maratea},
  TITLE = {Evaluating Backjumping for Disjunctive Logic Programming},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {G. Terracina and N. Leone and V. Lio and C. Panetta},
  TITLE = {Comparing Logic Programming Systems with DBMSs on Recursive Queries},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {M. Cadoli and T. Mancini and D. Micaletto and F. Patrizi},
  TITLE = {Evaluating ASP and Commercial Solvers on the CSPLib},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {M. Narizzano and L. Pulina and A. Tacchella},
  TITLE = {Scoring Methods for the Evaluation of Automated Reasoning Systems},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {M. Benedetti},
  TITLE = {Abstract Branching for Quantified Formulas},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {M. Benedetti and A. Lallouet and J. Vautard},
  TITLE = {Reasoning on Quantified Constraints},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {L. Di Gaspero and M. Chiarandini and A. Schaerf},
  TITLE = {A Study on the Short-term Prohibition Mechanisms in Tabu Search},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {R. Cipriano and L. Di Gaspero and A. Dovier},
  TITLE = {Hybrid Approaches for Rostering: A Case Study in the Integration of Constraint Programming and Local Search},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {A. Roli},
  TITLE = {Symmetry-breaking and Local Search},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PS = {}

  AUTHOR = {A. Cesta and N. Policella and R. Rasconi},
  TITLE = {Integrating Off-line and On-line Scheduling Approaches},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {L. Benini and D. Bertozzi and A. Guerri and M. Milano and M. Ruggiero},
  TITLE = {A Cooperative, Accurate Solving Framework for Optimal Allocation, Scheduling and Frequency Selection on Energy-efficient MPSoCs},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {G. Di Tollo},
  TITLE = {Credit Risk: A Neural Net Approach},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {F. Buccafurri and G. Caminiti},
  TITLE = {Extending Social Logic Programming to Represent Cooperative Work with Flexible Requirements},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {E. Lamma and P. Mello and F. Riguzzi},
  TITLE = {Exploiting Abduction for Learning from Incomplete Interpretations},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  AUTHOR = {P. Flach, V. Maraldi, F. Riguzzi},
  TITLE = {Algorithms for Efficiently and Effectively Using Background Knowledge in Tertius},
  CROSSREF = {rcra06},
  PDF = {}

  TITLE = {Giornata di Lavoro: Analisi sperimentale e benchmark di algoritmi per l'Intelligenza Artificiale RCRA 06},
  BOOKTITLE = {Giornata di Lavoro: Analisi sperimentale e benchmark di algoritmi per l'Intelligenza Artificiale RCRA 06},
  YEAR = {2006},
  EDITOR = {Marco Gavanelli and Toni Mancini},
  ADDRESS = {Udine, Italy},
  MONTH = JUN # { 23},
  URL = {}

  AUTHOR = {Marco Alberti and Federico Chesani},
  TITLE = {The computational behaviour of the {SCIFF} abductive proof procedure and the {SOCS-SI} system},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {77--84},
  KEYWORDS = {Abduction, Proof Procedure, Experimentation, Agent Interaction Verification},
  ABSTRACT = {The high computational cost of abduction has limited the application
of this powerful and expressive formalism to practical cases.
SCIFF is an abductive proof procedure used for verifying the
compliance of agent behaviour to interaction protocols in multi-agent
systems; SCIFF has been integrated in SOCS-SI, a system able to
observe the agent interaction, pass it to SCIFF for the reasoning
process and to display in a GUI the results of the SCIFF
In order to assess the applicability of SCIFF and SOCS-SI to
practical cases, we have evaluated qualitatively and experimentally
(not yet formally) their computational behaviour, as far as
limitations and scalability. In this paper we show the results of the

  AUTHOR = {Marco Benedetti},
  TITLE = {Hybrid Evaluation Procedures for {QBF}},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {135--141},
  KEYWORDS = {Propositional Reasoning, QBF, Hybrid algorithms, Symbolic reasoning.},
  ABSTRACT = {We present a system designed to evaluate and certify Quantified
Boolean Formulas (QBFs) by employing a hybrid approach
to the problem. Issues in integrating different philosophies
and the usage of meta-heuristics to compose the
whole framework are addressed.}

  AUTHOR = {Luca Benini and Davide Bertozzi and Alessio Guerri and Michela Milano and Francesco Poletti},
  TITLE = {Measuring Efficiency and Executability of allocation and scheduling in Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chip},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {13--21},
  KEYWORDS = {Mapping, Scheduling, Constraint Programming, Benders Decomposition},
  ABSTRACT = {Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chips
  (MPSoCs) are becoming increasingly complex, and mapping and
scheduling of multi-task applications on computational
units is key to meeting performance constraints
and power budgets. Abstract models of system components
and deployment of advanced algorithmic techniques
for the optimization problem can provide for
fast design space exploration and for optimal solutions.
We exploit Constraint Programming (CP) from
Artificial Intelligence and Integer Programming from
Operations Research (OR) as a means to capture different
aspects of the same problem (optimality and
feasibility), and prove the effectiveness of this hybrid
approach. Moreover, we exploit an accurate MPSoC
virtual platform for capturing mismatches between
problem formulation and real-life systems, and for assessing
their impact on expected performance. We
introduce the notion of execution constraints in the
model of the problem, thus making the solution expressible
and implementable in the real world. The
model without execution constraints is a relaxation
of the real problem and therefore provides a super-
optimal solution. We compare the effectiveness of this
latter solution with the one provided by the simulator,
and try to refine our models as well as our optimization
techniques accordingly.}

  AUTHOR = {Christian Bessiere and Emmanuel Hebrard and Brahim Hnich and Zeynep Kiziltan and Toby Walsh},
  TITLE = {Filtering Algorithms for the {NValue} Constraint},
  PS = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {3--12},
  KEYWORDS = {Constraint satisfaction, constraint programming, global constraints.},
  ABSTRACT = {The constraint NValue counts the number of different
values assigned to a vector of variables. Propagating
generalized arc consistency on this constraint is NP-hard.
We show that computing even the lower bound
on the number of values is NP-hard. We therefore
study different approximation heuristics for this problem.
We introduce three new methods for computing
a lower bound on the number of values. The first two
are based on the maximum independent set problem
and are incomparable to a previous approach based on
intervals. The last method is a linear relaxation of
the problem. This gives a tighter lower bound than all
other methods, but at a greater asymptotic cost.

  AUTHOR = {Francesco Buccafurri and Gianluca Caminiti and Domenico Rosaci},
  TITLE = {Perception-dependent reasoning and answer sets},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {119--126},
  KEYWORDS = {answer set programming, stable models, knowledge representation, perception.},
  ABSTRACT = {The question underlying this paper is the following: How
to represent agent reasoning that takes into account possible
perception failure? We try to give an answer to
the above question, by studying this problem in the basic
framework of the Extended Logic Programming. The paper
thus presents a new semantics, extending the well known
Answer Sets Semantics, for dealing with some meaningful
aspects relating to the agent perception.}

  AUTHOR = {Marco Cadoli and Toni Mancini and Fabio Patrizi},
  TITLE = {{SAT} as an effective solving technology for constraint problems},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {39--47},
  PDF = {},
  ABSTRACT = {In this paper we investigate the use of SAT technology
for solving constraint problems. In particular, we solve
many instances of several common benchmark problems
for CP with different SAT solvers, by exploiting the declarative
modelling language NPSPEC, and SPEC2SAT, an application
that allows to compile NPSPEC specifications
into SAT instances. Furthermore, we start investigating
whether some reformulation techniques already used in CP
are effective even when using SAT as solving engine. We
present preliminary but encouraging experimental results
in this direction, showing that this approach can be appealing.}

  AUTHOR = {Stefania Costantini},
  TITLE = {Towards Static Analysis of {Answer Set Programs}},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {103--112},
  KEYWORDS = {Answer Set Programming, Graph Representations},
  ABSTRACT = {In this paper we propose a static analysis methodology for
Answer Set Programming, which ia a new logic programming
paradigm based on Gelfond-Lifschitz's answer set
semantics (originally defined as `stable model semantics').
The method is based on: identifying the cycles contained
in the program, showing that stable models of the overall
program are composed of stable models of suitable subprograms,
corresponding to the cycles; defining the Cycle
Graph, where each vertex corresponds to one cycle, and
each edge corresponds to one handle, which is a literal
containing an atom that, occurring in both cycles, actually
determines a connection between them. Several properties
of a program, including consistency, can be checked on its
Cycle Graph.}

  AUTHOR = {Marco De Luca and Massimo Narizzano and Armando Tacchella},
  TITLE = {Understanding the state of the art in {QBF}: the 2004 of Evaluation {QBF} Solvers and Benchmarks},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {143--151},
  ABSTRACT = {This paper reports about the 2004 comparative evaluation
of solvers for quantified Boolean formulas (QBFs), the
second in a series of non-competitive events established
with the aim of assessing the advancements in the field of
QBF reasoning and related research. We evaluated sixteen
solvers on a test set of about one thousand benchmarks
selected from instances submitted to the evaluation
and from those available at In the
paper we present the evaluation infrastructure, from the
criteria used to select the benchmarks to the hardware set
up, and we show different views about the results obtained,
highlighting the strength of different solvers and the relative
hardness of the benchmarks included in the test set.}

  AUTHOR = {Luca Di Gaspero and Andrea Schaerf},
  TITLE = {A Tabu Search Approach to the Traveling Tournament Problem},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {23-27},
  KEYWORDS = {Metaeuristiche, analisi sperimentale di algoritmi, esperienze applicative},
  ABSTRACT = {The Traveling Tournament Problem (TTP) is a combinatorial
problem that combines features both from the traveling
salesman problem and from tournament scheduling.
We propose a tabu search approach to the solution of TTP
that makes use of a combination of two neighborhood relations.
The algorithm has been experimentally analyzed
on several sets of publicly available benchmarks and we
show a comparison with previous approaches presented in
the literature.}

  AUTHOR = {Agostino Dovier and Andrea Formisano and Enrico Pontelli},
  TITLE = {A comparison of {CLP(FD)} and {ASP} solutions to {NP}-complete problems},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {117--118},
  KEYWORDS = {CLP(FD), ASP, NP-completeness},
  ABSTRACT = {CLP(FD) and normal logic programs in the context of Answer
Set Programming are perhaps the two main declarative
approaches to modeling and solving NP-complete
problems. In this paper, we compare the encoding style
and computational results for the two paradigms, studying
some NP-complete problems.}

  AUTHOR = {Wolfgang Faber and Nicola Leone and Francesco Ricca},
  TITLE = {Solving Problems on the Second Level of the Polynomial Hierarchy},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {115--116},
  KEYWORDS = {ASP, Heuristics, QBF},
  ABSTRACT = {We define a new heuristic $h_{DS}$ for ASP, and implement
it in the (disjunctive) ASP system DLV. The new heuristic
improves the evaluation of $\Sigma^P_2/\Pi^P_2$-hard ASP programs
while maintaining the benign behaviour of the well-assessed
heuristic of DLV on NP problems.
We experiment with the new heuristic on QBFs. $h_{DS}$
significantly outperforms the heuristic of DLV on hard
2QBF problems. We also compare the DLV system (with
$h_{DS}$) to three prominent QBF solvers. The results of the
comparison, performed on instances used in the last QBF
competition, indicate that ASP systems can be faster than
QBF systems on $\Sigma^P_2/\Pi^P_2$-hard problems.}

  AUTHOR = {Wolfgang Faber},
  TITLE = {A Tool for Benchmarking Command-line Systems},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {113--114},
  KEYWORDS = {Benchmarking Tool, Command-line Systems},
  ABSTRACT = {In this paper we describe a system for representing and running
benchmarks. The tool was started for benchmarking AI systems, but
is actually usable for arbitrary command-line systems. It
is fully implemented and available on the web.}

  AUTHOR = {Alfonso Gerevini and Alessandro Saetti and Ivan Serina},
  TITLE = {An Experimental Study Based on {Friedman}'s Test of some Local Search Techniques for Planning},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {59--68},
  KEYWORDS = {Automated planning, Local-search, Experimental analysis of algorithms and planning systems.},
  ABSTRACT = {LPG is a planner that performed very well at the last two
International planning competitions (2002 and 2004). The
system is based on a stochastic local search procedure incorporating
several heuristic features. In this paper, we
experimentally analyze the most important of them with
the goal of understanding and evaluating their impact on
the performance of the planner. In particular, we examine
(i) three heuristic functions for evaluating the search
neighborhood, (ii) some settings of the ``noise'' parameter,
that randomizes the search for escaping from local minima,
and (iii) some additional heuristic techniques for restricting
the search neighborhood and (iv) for selecting the
next flaw to handle. The experimental analysis is based on
the statistical test of Friedman, which is a suitable test for
the empirical comparison of the performances of different

  AUTHOR = {Enrico Giunchiglia and Marco Maratea},
  TITLE = {An Analysis of Search Strategies and Heuristics in Answer Set Programming},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {127--134},
  KEYWORDS = {Answer set programming, propositional satisfiability.},
  ABSTRACT = {Answer Set Programming (ASP) and propositional
satisfiability (SAT) are closely related. In some recent
work, we have shown that, on a wide set of logic programs
called ``tight'', the main search procedures used
by ASP and SAT systems are equivalent, i.e., that they
explore search trees with the same branching nodes. In
this paper, we focus on the experimental evaluation of
different search strategies, heuristics and their combinations
that have been shown to be effective in the
SAT community, in ASP systems. Our results show
that, despite the strong link between ASP and SAT, it
is not always the case that search strategies, heuristics
and/or their combinations that currently dominate in
SAT are also bound to dominate in ASP. We provide a
detailed experimental evaluation for this phenomenon
and we shed light on future development of efficient
Answer Set solvers.}

  AUTHOR = {Federico Pecora and Amedeo Cesta},
  TITLE = {The Quality of Plans in Loosely-Coupled Planning and Scheduling Integrations},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {49--58},
  KEYWORDS = {Planning, Scheduling, P&S Integration.},
  ABSTRACT = {The research described in this paper is aimed at understanding
the structural trademarks of the causal knowledge
that a scheduling tool inherits from a classical
planner within a loosely-coupled integrated planning and
scheduling (P&S) framework. This type of combination of
planners and schedulers is such that the plans produced
by the first component represent scheduling problems to be
reasoned upon by the scheduler. Specifically, we analyze
the quality of the plans in terms of two well-known properties
of scheduling problems, namely the Restrictiveness
and the Resource Strength. To this end, we describe a set
of experiments carried out on a series of state-of-the-art
planners aimed at assessing the bias of different planning
strategies in the context of the integrated P&S framework.}

  AUTHOR = {Nicola Policella and Riccardo Rasconi},
  TITLE = {Testsets Generation for Reactive Scheduling},
  PDF = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {69--75},
  KEYWORDS = {Scheduling, Benchmark Generator},
  ABSTRACT = {This paper presents some basic ideas for the creation of a
benchmark generator for reactive scheduling problem instances.
The main motivations behind this work grow out
either from the recognized lack (hence the necessity) of
benchmark sets for this specific problem as well as from
the conviction that the resolution of a scheduling problem
consists both in the synthesis of an initial solution
(``static'' scheduling) and in the utilization of a number of
methodologies dedicated to the continuous preservation of
solution consistency. In fact, the occurrence of exogenous
events during the execution phase in real working environments,
often compromises the schedule's original qualities.}

  AUTHOR = {Fabrizio Riguzzi},
  TITLE = {A Comparison of {ILP} Systems on the {Sisyphus} Dataset},
  PDF = { riguzzi.pdf},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {85--92},
  KEYWORDS = {Machine Learning, Inductive Logic Programming},
  ABSTRACT = {In this paper we present a comparison of two Inductive Logic
Programming (ILP) systems on the Sisyphus dataset. The aim of the
comparison is to to show how the systems behave on a large
dataset. The considered  systems are Aleph and Tilde. Both
systems have an unacceptable execution time on the whole dataset,
so they are run over  samples extracted from the dataset.

The comparison shows that, on average, Tilde finds more accurate
theories in a smaller time.

  AUTHOR = {Andrea Roli},
  TITLE = {Links between complex networks and combinatorial optimization},
  PS = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {93--101},
  KEYWORDS = {Combinatorial optimization problems, constraint graph, problem structure, complex networks},
  ABSTRACT = {Recent results in constraint satisfaction and
  combinatorial optimization have shown that complex networks
(such as scale-free networks, characterized by a frequency
node degree following a power law) can be fruitfully
used to modeling problem structure. By conveying
results and tools from complex networks to combinatorial
optimization, it is possible to achieve a deeper
understanding of algorithm behavior. Moreover, some
features of the network that models an instance can
guide the design of specific heuristics and enable to
choose the best solver among a portfolio of algorithms.
This work describes two representative cases in this
interdisciplinary research field.}

  AUTHOR = {Francisco Yepes Barrera},
  TITLE = {Ricerca della struttura ottimale di reti neurali con algoritmi genetici e simulated annealing. {Verifica} tramite il benchmark {PROBEN1}},
  PS = {},
  CROSSREF = {rcra05},
  PAGES = {29--38},
  KEYWORDS = {algoritmi genetici, simulated annealing, ottimizzazione, reti neurali artificiali, benchmark, PROBEN1, TSAGANN.},
  ABSTRACT = {Questo
articolo descrive l'utilizzo di algoritmi genetici (GA) e simulated annealing (SA)
nella ricerca di configurazioni ottime di reti
neurali artificiali, all'interno di una specifica
architettura, TSAGANN. Lo studio comparativo e` stato condotto con benchmark
consolidati, ed e` descritto in dettaglio. I risultati
indicano che SA sembra non essere penalizzato
rispetto a GA.}

  TITLE = {Atti della Giornata di Lavoro: Analisi sperimentale e benchmark di algoritmi per l'Intelligenza Artificiale},
  BOOKTITLE = {Atti della Giornata di Lavoro: Analisi sperimentale e benchmark di algoritmi per l'Intelligenza Artificiale},
  YEAR = {2005},
  EDITOR = {Marco Cadoli and Marco Gavanelli and Toni Mancini},
  ADDRESS = {Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Universita` di Ferrara, Italy},
  MONTH = JUN # { 10},
  URL = {},
  NUMBER = {CS-2005-03},
  SERIES = {Computer Science Group Technical Reports},
  PDF = {}

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